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Detailed UPS power supply basic application notes

Release date: 2015-03-05
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UPS uninterruptible power supply that is the battery (maintenance-free lead-acid batteries, mostly) and the host is connected to the host via an inverter module converts the DC circuit mains system equipment. Mainly used for a single computer, computer network systems, or other power electronic devices to provide a stable and uninterrupted supply of electricity.
First, the function and role of the UPS
UPS is an acronym for uninterruptible power supply (UninterruptiblePowerSystem) English name, and it is accompanied by the emergence of the birth of the computer, is one of the common computer peripherals. In fact, UPS is a copolymer containing energy storage device and the inverter for the constant voltage and the amount of the main components of the uninterruptible power supply. UPS in its early stages of development, only be seen as a backup power source. Later, due to voltage surges, voltage spikes, voltage transients, voltage drop, sustained overvoltage or undervoltage or power quality problems such as voltage interruptions, computer systems and other electronic devices by *, causing damage to sensitive components, information is lost, Disk program is obliterated and other serious consequences, causing huge economic losses. Therefore, UPS and more attention, and has gradually developed into a voltage, frequency stabilization, filtering, anti-electromagnetic and radio frequency *, anti-power system voltage surge protection and other functions.
Currently on the market you can buy a wide range of UPS power supply, the output power ranging from 500VA to 3000kVA. When there is electricity supply when UPS, UPS mains were regulated (220V ± 5%) after powering the computer. At this point the UPS is an AC mains voltage regulator, but it also charge the battery to the machine. UPS designs vary, UPS to adapt to different ranges, UPS output voltage of ± 10-15% of the variation in the general computer use is a normal voltage. When utility power is interrupted or abnormal, UPS immediately internal battery power supply through an inverter to convert the computer system in order to maintain the normal operation of the computer system and protect against loss of the computer hardware and software.
Two, UPS classification and characteristics
UPS power back-up their work can be divided into two categories and on-line, according to a square wave output waveform can be divided into two kinds of output and the sine wave output. When normal power supply back-up power supply UPS mains, mains and then supplied to the load via the bypass channel through the exchange of direct power transfer switches, inverters inside the machine in a stopped state. This UPS power substantially equivalent to a poor performance of the mains voltage regulator. It is in addition to the magnitude of the mains voltage fluctuations have improved, the frequency of the mains voltage instability, waveform distortion and other adverse affects from the grid * string into essentially no improvement. Only when the mains power supply is interrupted or below 170V, the inverter power supply UPS battery fishes, and to the load voltage, frequency stabilization of AC power. Advantages backup UPS power supply is a high efficiency, low noise, relatively cheap, mainly applicable to electricity market volatility is not, on the quality of power supply is not critical.
Online UPS power supply when the mains is normal, first mains AC into DC power, and then pulse width modulation, filtering, and then back into the DC power supply AC power, which it usually is then rectified by AC In the inverter provide AC power to the load. Once the electricity is interrupted, immediately change the way from the battery to the inverter to provide AC power to the load. Therefore, in terms of on-line UPS power supply, under normal circumstances, no matter whether the mains, it is always by UPS power inverter to power the load, thus avoiding all the mains voltage fluctuations and * bring impact. Obviously, power quality on-line UPS power backup UPS power was superior because it can achieve load frequency stabilization, the regulator power supply, and in the mains switch to battery power, its conversion time is zero. Square wave output with a load capacity of UPS poor (only 40-60% of the rated load capacity load) can not be charged inductive loads. As carried the load is too large, the third harmonic components of the square wave output voltage will make the shed contained capacitive load current increases, severe damage to the load of the power supply filter capacitor. The relationship between the amount of distortion of the load output voltage waveform sine wave output power of UPS UPS does not square wave output power as obvious, load capacity is relatively strong, and can bring micro inductive loads. Regardless of the type of UPS, inverters when they are in power, unless forced to, generally do not run at full load or overload, or make UPS power supply failure rate increased significantly.
Third, UPS and load matching
Some UPS watts (W) or kilowatts (kw) to represent its output power, such as 500W, 1kw, etc; some UPS with VA (VA) or kVA (kVA) to represent its output power, as 3000VA , 5kVA and so on. General conversion between VA and W is: W is 0.8 times the VA, as 3kVA = 2.4kw. UPS is powered by the load line, and each has a specific UPS output power capability. As 3kVA of UPS, the maximum output power is 3kVA or 2.4kw, this time on the request received total power consumption of the device is not on this UPS over 2.4 kilowatts. Usually marked with a power consumption of devices (or rated power), then you should make all devices connected to the UPS's rated power does not add up to more than the UPS output power, this method is usually called the UPS output power and load consumption electric power matching. However, some devices starting power is 3-5 times the rated power (such as a printer is rated at 200W, when calculating the load match according to 5 × 200W = 1000W for conversion). In addition to other computer peripherals other than printer, usually starting power slightly larger than the rated power, it is considered the best match by 80% UPS output power load matching.
Standard UPS does not add external battery before, at its output power and load power consumption exact match (ie full load), the general counting electricity from a power outage for about 6-10 minutes (the specific values ​​for each Instructions on UPS models have documented). If only half of UPS load power consumption of computing power output (used to call a half load or 50% load factor, such as access to 500W load 1000W UPS), you can supply 12-25 minutes, UPS power supply when different loadings reference load calculation time can be roughly halved the time to redouble way. Note the use of the proper use of UPS power supply, not only can reduce the chance of UPS failure, and can effectively extend its life.
Fourth, usually should note the following:
(1) When using UPS, should strictly abide by the relevant provisions of the manufacturer's product specifications, ensuring live, neutral mains order to meet the requirements of the connected UPS.
The main purpose of (2) with a UPS is to prevent power outages caused by the sudden loss of information and damage the computer hard drive, but some devices work is not afraid of sudden power failure (such as printers). UPS To save energy, the printer can be considered without going through UPS and direct access to the mains. If the network can be considered only UPS power supply to the host (or server) and related parts. This ensures that the UPS can be used both on the most important equipment, but also saving investment.
(3) Do not overload the use of UPS. The maximum load capacity of UPS should be 80% of its nominal load (eg 1000w of UPS, according to 80% to match the load rate that is 800W load: After the UPS 1000VA by 80% then 80% in terms of 800W load rate that 640W to a matched load). If you overload used in the inverter state, often resulting in the breakdown of the inverter transistor. In addition, when using UPS, non-inductive load connected as fluorescent and the like, but can only receive with a pure electric or small capacitive loads.
It should be noted (4) switch switch sequence: first open UPS boot later (preferably lag 1-2 minutes to allow UPS to fully enter the working state) and then turn the power switch on the load, and the load of the power switch To go one by one turn: shutdown sequence when the opposite, one by one, turn off the first load of the power switch, then turn off the UPS. UPS is switched on for long periods, and the computer each time you use it, such as load boot, just turn off the computer after use, such as the power button to load.
(5) Do not open the UPS power off and on frequently.
General requirements for UPS power after closing, at least to wait six seconds before the UPS power is turned on again, otherwise, UPS power supply may be in "failed to start" state, ie UPS output power is neither electricity nor the inverter output abnormal state.
(6) the power of the battery within the UPS may be due to some reason or exhausted nearly exhausted. To compensate for the battery energy and increase battery life, UPS to be timely, continuous charge for a long time (usually less than 48 hours, may be with or without load) in order to avoid malfunction due to battery failure. The new purchase or storage for a long time UPS, before use, should be charged for 12 hours. Long-term storage without the UPS, every 3 months, charge 12 hours, if at a high temperature region, charging once every two months. UPS does not charge you to use, it will damage the batteries.